Trademark classes are categories used to identify goods and services by the United States Patent and Trademark Office. There are 45 classes—34 for goods and 11 for services. A trademark can belong to multiple classes, with each classification protecting the mark in relation to different facets of the brand it promotes.
This article will cover:
Why Are Trademark Classes Important?
Trademark classes are important for a couple main reasons:
- Your mark will only be protected under the class(es) identified in your trademark application. Let’s say you register the name of your natural makeup company, Golden Hour, in class 3, which includes cosmetics, and class 21, which includes makeup brushes. Later on, you open a retail shop to sell your products out of—that’s class 35. To protect your trademark in relation to your retail services, a new application would need to be filed. If you’d had a store or were about to open one when you initially filed, you could’ve included all your classes in the same application. (Additional fees apply for each additional class.)
- Trademark classes help determine if a likelihood of confusion exists between marks. While identical marks can coexist, this is generally only true in cases where the products/services are unrelated. Trademark classes help you discover whether or not there’s overlap. But this system isn’t foolproof. Similar marks in the same class could represent distinct goods/services. Likewise, similar marks in different classes could promote related goods/services. Research is key.
Listing the wrong class is a major problem people encounter when applying for a trademark. With our Trademark Service, we take that worry off your plate.
What Are the 45 Trademark Classes?
The 45 trademark classes are relatively broad, and can encompass seemingly unrelated products or services. Note that goods and services are never placed in the same class, with goods residing in classes 1-34 and services in classes 35-45.
Below, we’ve described each class and provided examples of the types of things identified within each class. Our examples are not exhaustive, but will give you a good starting point. See the USPTO’s class list and descriptions to dive even deeper.
Classes 1-34: Goods
Class 1: Chemicals
Class 1 focuses on chemicals used in science and agriculture. Many goods in this class are used to make other products. Examples include certain preservatives, ingredients in medicine and makeup, compost and fertilizer, and fire extinguishing compositions.
Class 2: Paints
Class 2 includes paint and paint-related products, such as varnish, colorants, and wood stain. Other examples include ink for printing, food dye, clothing dye, and raw natural resin.
Class 3: Cosmetics & Cleaning Products
Class 3 contains makeup and toiletries, deodorant, perfume and essential oils, then veers off into cleaning products such as bleach, laundry detergent, and sandpaper. Interestingly, nail art stickers are a specific inclusion of class 3.
Class 4: Lubricants & Fuels
Class 4 contains raw wax, electrical energy, gasoline, and industrial oils/greases. Candles and wicks are included (if used for lighting), as is wood (if used for fuel).
Class 5: Pharmaceuticals
Class 5 encompasses medication and medical preparations for both humans and animals. Additional examples include sanitary preparations, baby food, vitamins, plaster for casts, fungicides/herbicides, diapers, and pads/tampons.
Class 6: Metal Goods
Class 6 focuses on common metals, especially those that are unprocessed or partially processed, as well as their alloys and ores. Plenty of items made from common metal fall into this class, such as swimming pools, prefabricated houses, nails, screws, metal wires, railway tracks, and art. Some metal goods live in other classes based on their function or purpose.
Class 7: Machinery
Class 7 primarily includes machines and machine tools. Motors and engines are included in this class, excluding those used for land vehicles. Note that parts of land-vehicle motors, such as mufflers and cylinders, are included. Other class 7 examples include egg incubators, automatic vending machines, 3D printers, industrial robots, and bulldozers.
Class 8: Hand Tools
Class 8 includes hand tools typically used for drilling, shaping, cutting, piercing, and grooming. Examples include gardening and landscaping tools, hammers, chisels, razors, curling irons, and cutlery.
Class 9: Electrical & Scientific Apparatus
Class 9 is extremely broad, covering equipment used for science and research, navigation, photography, technology, and safety. Instruments for conducting, controlling, and transmitting electricity are included, as are computers and computer software. Class 9 also includes resuscitation mannequins, bullet-proof vests, glasses/contact lenses, magnets, e-cigarette batteries, AI robots, and phone cases.
Class 10: Medical Apparatus
Class 10 primarily includes surgical, medical, and dental instruments. Artificial limbs and teeth are in class 10, as are compression socks, pacemakers, condoms, operating tables, breast implants, menstrual cups, and orthopedic shoes.
Class 11: Environmental Control Apparatus
Class 11 encompasses products used to light, heat, cool, cook, dry, and ventilate. Goods related to sanitation and water supply are also included. Class 11 examples include air conditioners, bakers’ ovens, domestic fireplaces, electric coffee makers, street lamps, bathtubs, toilets, electrically heated clothes, headlights, fountains, and tanning beds.
Class 12: Vehicles
Class 12 focuses on vehicles used to transport people and goods across land, air, or water. Also included in this class are certain vehicle parts, such as motors/engines for land vehicles, bumpers, steering wheels, propellers, and tires.
Class 13: Firearms
Class 13 is fairly specific, including firearms, explosives, and pyrotechnics. Specific examples of class 13 goods include fireworks, flares, pepper spray, ammunition, and hunting rifles.
Class 14: Jewelry
Class 14 focuses on jewelry, precious metals and alloys, and precious/semi-precious stones. Note that jewelry made without precious material is also included. Mechanical watches and clocks are part of class 14, as are key chains and jewelry boxes.
Class 15: Musical Instruments
Class 15 includes musical instruments from pianos to trombones to drums. Accessories and parts such as music stands, reeds, strings, and rosin are also included. While electronic instruments are part of class 15, many electronic music accessories (like subwoofers, pedals, and recording devices) belong to other classes.
Class 16: Paper Goods & Printed Matter
Class 16 includes most types of paper and cardboard, as well as some art and office supplies. Printed photographs, bookbinding material, paperclips, wrapping paper, paintbrushes, papier mâché art, pens, cellophane tape, and paper towels are all examples of class 16 goods.
Class 17: Rubber Goods
Class 17 encompasses unprocessed and semi-processed rubber, plastic for manufacture use, insulating materials, and rubber substitutes. Other goods in class 17 include non-metal pipes, tubes, and hoses, foam for flower arrangements, and rubber padding.
Class 18: Leather Goods
Class 18 contains leather, faux leather, and some goods made of these materials. Examples of leather goods that fall under class 18 include luggage, saddles, dog collars, purses, wallets, and backpacks. It’s worth noting that while animal clothes fall under class 18, human clothes do not.
Class 19: Non-Metallic Building Materials
Class 19 includes construction and building materials that are not made of metal, such as semi-worked wood beams, asphalt, marble, building glass, and gravel. Other specific goods that belong to class 19 are wood veneers, headstones, and transportable buildings.
Class 20: Furniture & Articles Not Otherwise Classified
Class 20 includes furniture and a variety of homegoods, especially those made out of wood, cork, wicker, amber, and plastic. Mirrors and picture frames are part of this class, as are mattresses, pillows, window blinds, and camp chairs. Notably, metal furniture is included in class 20 and not in other metal-related classes.
Class 21: Housewares & Glass
Class 21 focuses on small goods for use in the home and kitchen. Items such as fly swatters, mixing spoons, ladles, vases, stovetop kettles, pots and pans, and cocktail shakers are in this class. (Cutlery lives elsewhere.) Additional class 21 examples include toothbrushes, combs, makeup brushes, gardening gloves, and watering cans.
Class 22: Cordage & Fibers
Class 22 includes materials like canvas, raw or treated wool, raw silk, and jute. Goods in this class are primarily made from these natural fibers, as well as some synthetic materials. Examples include rope, nets, hammocks, tents, sails, awnings, and mail bags.
Class 23: Yarns & Threads
Class 23 is narrow and specific, encompassing yarn and thread for use in textiles. Natural yarn/thread such as spun silk, spun cotton, and spun wool are included in class 23, as are synthetic threads made from fiberglass, elastic, rubber, and plastic.
Class 24: Fabrics
Class 24 includes fabrics and textiles. Specific fabric goods in class 24 are curtains, bed sheets, towels, sleeping bags, and mosquito nets.
Class 25: Clothing
Class 25 is all about clothes, shoes, and headwear (those made for humans, specifically). Everyday wearables are included in class 25, as are specialty items like soccer cleats, bike shorts, and ski boots.
Class 26: Fancy Goods
Class 26 focuses on adornment and decoration, including everything from wigs and fake beards to ribbons, zippers, and artificial Christmas garland.
Class 27: Floor Coverings
Class 27 mostly contains coverings for floors and walls. Carpets, rugs, and linoleum are part of class 27, as are bath mats, yoga mats, wallpaper, and artificial turf. Note that some floor materials, like wood and tile, belong to other classes.
Class 28: Toys & Sporting Goods
Class 28 primarily includes games, toys, and various sports equipment. Specific items in this class are video game controllers, paper party hats, fishing poles, basketballs, and board games. But just to keep you on your toes, Christmas tree decorations are in class 28, too.
Class 29: Meats & Processed Foods
Class 29 includes meat and fish, as well as processed fruits and vegetables. Other examples of food in this class include milk and milk substitutes, eggs, cheese, jam, processed nuts, frozen fruit, and cooking oil.
Class 30: Staple Foods
Class 30 encompasses certain preserved and prepared food. Examples of food and drinks in class 30 include coffee, tea, cereal, pizza, sandwiches, pie, spices, rice, pasta, flour, bread, chocolate, ice cream, sugar, salt, vinegar, and ice.
Class 31: Natural Agricultural Products
Class 31 includes agricultural products from both land and sea that are raw and unprocessed. Examples include fresh fruits and vegetables, bulbs and seeds for planting, and uncut timber. Class 31 also includes live animals and animal food.
Class 32: Light Beverages
Class 32 focuses on non-alcoholic drinks. Specific examples include sparkling and mineral water, juice, flavoring syrups, soda, and energy drinks. Note that even though it’s alcoholic, beer is included in class 32.
Class 33: Wines & Spirits
Class 33 is all about alcoholic beverages, though beer is excluded. Examples include wine, alcoholic cider, liquor, and bitters.
Class 34: Smokers’ Articles
Class 34 predominantly includes goods related to smoking, such as tobacco, cigarettes, cigars, and e-cigarettes. Related goods like lighters, ashtrays, pipes, and matches are included as well. Tobacco substitutes and herbs for smoking are in class 34, though only if they’re for non-medical use.
Classes 35-45: Services
Class 35: Advertising & Business
Class 35 includes services centered around advertising and business management, organization, and operations. Marketing and public relations are included in class 35, as are promotional services, recruitment, bookkeeping, and retail stores.
Class 36: Insurance & Financial
Class 36 includes financial, insurance, and real estate services. Specific examples include credit card processing, appraisals (such as for jewelry or real estate), property management, and crowdfunding.
Class 37: Building Construction & Repair
Class 37 services are focused primarily on construction, demolition, and restoration of buildings and infrastructure. Maintenance, repair, and restoration of furniture, art, and vehicles are included, as is the rental of construction tools/equipment. Laundry services are included in class 37 as well.
Class 38: Telecommunication
Class 38 includes communication, broadcast, and data transmission services. Examples include email, radio and TV broadcasting, phone and videoconferencing services, and online messaging.
Class 39: Transportation & Storage
Class 39 includes services related to transporting people, animals, and goods, as well as storage services. Examples include public transportation, car rentals, delivery services, electricity and water distribution, tourist agencies, and garage rentals.
Class 40: Treatment of Materials
Class 40 services include mechanical and chemical processing, as well as the transformation of objects and production of custom goods. Examples include trash and recycling services, water treatment, printing, fabric dyeing, welding, custom tailoring, and food/drink preservation.
Class 41: Education & Entertainment
Class 41 focuses on services that are educational, entertaining, or recreational in nature. Museums, zoos, and art galleries are included in class 41, as are translation services, book publishing, photography and film production, casinos, and gyms.
Class 42: Computer & Scientific
Class 42 includes services in scientific, engineering, architectural, and computer programming fields. Certain types of design services are included in class 42, such as graphic arts and interior design.
Class 43: Hotels & Restaurants
Class 43 includes services rendered for food/drink consumption and temporary lodging. In addition to hotels and restaurants, class 43 includes animal boarding, retirement homes, nurseries (for children, not plants), food decorating, hookah lounges, and chair/table rentals.
Class 44: Medical, Beauty, & Agricultural
Class 44 primarily includes medical and beauty services, but certain agricultural services are included as well. Examples include hospital services, dentistry, mental health services, animal breeding, tattooing and piercing, plant nurseries, landscape maintenance and design, and flower arranging.
Class 45: Personal & Legal
Class 45 includes certain personal and social services, as well as legal services. Examples include law firms, private investigation, surveillance related to safety and security, escort services, and wedding planning.
What Are International Trademark Classes?
International trademark classes and the trademark classes we describe on this page are one and the same. The classification system comes from the Nice Agreement of 1957, which laid the groundwork for trademark classes as we know them today. Adopted by dozens of countries, the Agreement makes it easier for trademark owners to apply for registration in multiple nations.
The USPTO formerly used a U.S.-specific class identification system, but switched to international trademark classes in the ’70s. Even so, the USPTO still notes both international and U.S. classes as part of your trademark registration. (But don’t worry—you’ll only need to identify international classes in your application.)
Frequently Asked Questions
How do I know what trademark class to register in?
To determine which trademark class(es) to register your mark in, you need to figure out (with specificity!) what goods/services the mark promotes. Specificity is important because even small changes to the description of a product can place it in a different class. To help narrow your search, the USPTO provides the Trademark ID Manual, a database that provides possible class matches when you enter key words.
What are coordinated trademark classes?
Coordinated trademark classes are classes that often overlap. The USPTO considers coordinated classes when determining if a likelihood of confusion exists between marks. For example, class 1 (chemicals) is commonly related to classes 5 (pharmaceuticals), 17 (rubber), 35 (advertising and business services), and 42 (computer, scientific, and legal services). A consumer could theoretically assume that goods in class 1 are sold by a business also selling services in class 42.
How much does it cost to register a trademark in different classes?
The cost to register a trademark depends on which application type you use and how many classes you apply to register in. If you use the TEAS Plus application, your base cost with the USPTO will be $250. If you use the TEAS Standard application, your base cost will be $350. Both options include registration in one trademark class. Each additional class costs the same as the base application fee. So if you use the TEAS Plus application and register in two classes, you’ll pay $500 in USPTO fees.
Can I add trademark classes after my application is submitted?
No. In order to add classes after a trademark application has been filed, you have to submit a new application.
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